Theory of Mind (ToM) is described as the attribution of mental states (thoughts, beliefs, desires,intentions, and emotions) to oneself or others, to make sense of and predict actions; the cognitive component of empathy.
Some researchers believe that people with autism have difficulties with theory of mind i.e. they struggle to understand what other people are thinking.
However some autistic people believe that theory of mind is a two-way street and that non-autistic people struggle to understand how autistic people think.
Both groups believe that difficulties with theory of mind may cause other difficulties, such as problems communicating with other people.